I received a call from a lady, in a nearby city, inquiring about training a dog for service. I asked what services she wanted this dog to perform and she told me, “I have dwarfism and it would be helpful if the dog could lay under my feet.” I thought, “A dog for an ottoman?” “Do you have a dog yet?” I thought that was important. She had three dogs, all of which were special needs. This wonderful couple made it their practice to adopt dogs no one else would want. But for a Service Dog she needed a dog with all four legs, good hearing, and healthy eyes. None of her present dogs had all of those. I did not hear back from the lady, Amy, and I thought my requirements and expectations were too high. Then came another call, “I have a dog. Will you evaluate him to see if he will work?” We set a time and they drove to my city and my home. They opened the hatch of their car and there was the goofiest looking, ill-mannered Lab mix, with a grin on his face saying, “Here I am!” This adolescent dog was everything adolescent implies. This dog was anything but bashful, and was everything un-socialized. “What do you think?” Amy anxiously asked. “Give me three minutes with him and I will tell you.” This dog certainly appeared to be a project. But he showed me he had promise and I agreed that I would work with him. I explained that this was not an inexpensive program and that at some point we may rule him out and need to find another dog. We agreed. I told Amy and her husband I have two rules for this to work.
1. They would only take their raining counsel from me. They were to ignore TV, books, or another trainer. No Cesar, no training books. Just me.
2. This has got to be fun. No rushing, no frustration, if we want Max to not be stressed, we could not be. If it is not fun for the dog, it is not fun.
With those two understandings we would begin.

I gaged Max’s training according to Amy’s need. With dwarfism Amy had increasing trouble navigating stairs, inclines, and slippery surfaces. Amy’s shoulders functioned with difficulty, and her knees and hips made a more than three or four steps impossible. Where Amy worked she had to walk all the way around the building to a ramp to enter. Being four feet tall shopping and shopping carts were avoided. Wow! Not only would Max have to fit in the Service Dog role, he was going to have a lot of needs to be attentive to. Not only would he have to perform his tasks perfectly, but he would have to anticipate Amy’s needs in every situation. He could not see a squirrel and take off after it with Amy’s hand in the leash. That would not be pretty. We made a list of needs and we guessed Max would have to learn more than forty (40) behaviors, all of which had to be fluent.

Now, more about Amy. Amy has her PHD and is the Chair of the French Department at IU. She travels around and out of the US. This meant that Max had to function in other cultures as well.
Amy’s husband, Jeevan, is a Medical Doctor and serves in the cancer field. They are both loving, considerate and giving. As I said, Amy has many medical issues. Not only would training Max be a long process, but I knew it would be very hard on Amy. I needed to be aware of her endurance as well as Max’s. Amy was a trooper and was a perfect Service Dog handler.

Another concern I had for Amy and Jeevan was Jeevan’s feeling left out of the process and create an unintentional gap in their relationship. When they brought Max to me in our first meeting I told them, “This is Amy’s dog. Every good thing comes from her. Feeding, treats, affection, all from her.” Jeevan would be kind to Max, but Max could not bond with him. It was important for Max to bond with Amy. I knew this would be hard. Jeevan could only be a part of the training if there was something he needed to have part of. Things like, showing affection to Amy. Max had to be aware that was okay. Helping Amy, Max had to know that was okay. If Jeevan, for some reason, needed to take Max’s leash, Max needed to know that was okay. When we were training, Jeevan could not offer suggestions. Outside of the session we could talk, but in the session Max had to know he could only listen to me or Amy. The best way to address this, so Jeevan did not feel left out, was to talk about it, and talk about from time to time. It worked out just as it needed to.

So we set a date to start. In the meantime I did not want time wasted. Amy was to take Max home and begin implementing my instructions. It was she who would take Max from the car. She was to limit Max’s time with the other dogs. She was to in control of his play time. Only she could feed, treat, or walk Max. From now on, no treats because Max is cute. Max had to work for rewards, including praise. To eat, he had to sit. To be petted (only by Amy) he had to sit. Max would not be on welfare, no freebies. If he begged, nothing. If he wined, nothing. Max was now in the labor force without a union to advocate for him. His only handler, director, and advocate was Amy. If you could know Amy you would discover she is no pushover, but she did have her weak moments with Max. She held her own, most of the time. When I train behaviors, if I get 80% out of the dog, I consider that acceptable. That includes the handler. In this case they were both at about a 95%.

There were several “firsts” to begin with. However, every behavior had a process and each behavior was designed to build on the previous behavior. I would not allow Max to become overwhelmed. So, the place, in formal training, to begin was Max’s public access. Oh my, his first trip to the Mall was like a kid in the candy store. If I told the Security person that he was a Service Dog in training, I think he would have walked away, having a good laugh. All we could do was walk Max to acclimate him to the new environment, one he would be spending a lot of time in. From this experience it was obvious, a simultaneous behavior we needed to work on was Max walking on a loose leash if we didn’t want to lose Amy.

Max was smart. It did not take long for Max to realize he was doing something very special. He very quickly understood, when we came together, it was training time. He also knew that that clicker thing meant good things. Max became extremely serious about our work. In fact I always had to be sure Max’s stress was eustress and not distress. I do not think there was any session of our over 125 that Max did not have fun. Well, there was one. Max was trying so hard to work, but I sensed something just wasn’t right. I ended the session on a high note, and told Amy something was wrong with Max. I asked her to take him to her vet for an exam. Sure enough, Max had a virus. Bless his heart, he was trying so hard. After that it seemed he trusted just a little bit more.

Max responded to my methods with seriousness. If there was a lull he would sit, lay, and sit again. He was saying, “Hey, do you see what I’m doing. Why isn’t that thing making that noise?” When Amy took the leash and ask something of Max, Max would take the leash in his mouth, jump up and down. He just was not taking Amy seriously. Amy was getting frustrated because with me he was serious, with her it was always play time. My cues were responded to, her cues aroused him. A good trainer is already guessing the cause of this difference. Amy had a high pitched voice, mine is low pitched. Mine was a commanding, hers was “let’s play.” I told this to Amy and instructed her to lower the tone of her voice. This did not come naturally for Amy. She had to consciously change the pitch of her voice. As she did this, the problem completely resolved. Amy’s lower tone was still high, but Max understood the difference and we never had this issue again.

Max was doing really well on his loose leash. He was staying beside Amy, but we had to teach Max that staying right beside her was the best place in the world. We had to train Max to be on Amy’s right side because her left shoulder was not strong. If Max lurched at something it could worsen her left shoulder. What we needed to work on now was “stay.” Oh boy. Max had learned his “rest” cue. But Max has springs in his legs. He thought rest meant his belly touched the floor and he was to bounce back up. “Stay” was not in either his vocabulary or intention. This seemed to take Max forever. Amy was his job, he understood that. So every time she moved, he moved. If she stepped back, he stepped forward. If we put him in a down by a kiosk and she stepped out of sight, he was up. He was smart, as he would come from the opposite direction and greet Amy. If Amy back around the kiosk she would not see him following her. “Success,” she thought, until she turned around. There was Max with the “I caught you,” grin. There were some things Max could do, but he just didn’t understand the purpose, so a few things took a little longer. When Amy was finally able to take two steps away from Max and he stayed in his down, we celebrated with Max. After that his stays became perfect and for great duration.

One of the behaviors we needed to teach Max was “pulling.” We wanted to be able to hook Max to Amy’s grocery cart and Max help by pulling it. This was not easy for Max although he caught on quickly. It was scary at first. I hooked his leash on a bicycle rack. The rack was aluminum and was not heavy, but that thing following Max was a different concept. There were a couple of approaches to this, Max got through this exercise, and became a perfect “puller.” If we were going to have Max pull a grocery cart he would have to learn his directions. Amy could not see over the cart so Max also had to be her eyes. We taught Max “left turn” and “right turn.” This was easy for Max to grasp and Max understood left and right. He learned slow and faster. He learned back and forward. He learned “side step, right and left.” This meant he would move sideways by moving his two side legs in the requested direction. People thought that was funny. Sometimes, to help Max, Amy would move as if dancing and Max would follow.

The stairs for Amy and Max was a bit more complicated and had to be trained separately.
Going up stairs for Amy was a different protocol than coming down. It was not as complicated for Max as I was afraid. He was now beginning to anticipate Amy’s different needs. Max now, instinctively, understood how Amy “would” move and position himself accordingly. Like in the car. When Max was taken to the car he would jump in and Amy would have to streeetttch to hook his safety strap. After a few times, Max decided on his own, “It’s better for her if I put my front feet up, leave my back feet on the ground, until I hear that “snap,” then bring my back feet up into the car.” Max was developing the ability to think and anticipate.

Targeting was another behavior Max caught on to right away. I wanted Max to open the handicap doors for Amy. I started by placing a target in my hand, then slowly move it up the door I placed it about a foot from the bottom of the door. This door had a push bar. He said, “Oh, I get it. You want me to do this.” And he stood up and pushed the door open. That was that. All we had to teach him was the word for the behavior. He knows that “open” means doors with a bar on it, and “push” means the circle or square on a post. Max hardly needs cued. When he comes to an entrance and sees a push button on a post of the wall, he just goes ahead and opens the door. Max can push light switches, grocery carts, and he can help push an item Amy needs help moving.

Max learned to stop at curbs, place his front feet on the street so Amy can balance herself on his shoulders, then step down. Then Max brings his hind feet from the curb and waits for Amy’s, “Let go.” In one session Max learned to brace his front legs for Amy to balance herself. She would say, “Brace” and you could see his legs stiffen and his shoulder muscles flex. It was amazing and wonderful because Max new what his job was.

Max’s recall was one of his favorite behaviors. Max had to respond immediately to Amy’s call to “come” or “come aside.” We trained this in a variety of ways. Each method was to teach Max that responding to Amy, and responding quickly, meant something wonderful. His favorite game was Ping-Pong. Amy stood on one side of the room, I on the other. I would call Max. As soon as Max came and got his treat, Amy would call. To increase his speed he would not receive reinforcement if he was slow. He caught on to this very quickly, and it was hilarious to see him get his treat, Amy call, and Max’s whole body whirl in motion and head for Amy.

I have to include another of Max’s favorite training, retrieving things. We taught him two different retrieves. One was for him to pick something up and place it in Amy’s hand. This was for something Amy needed. Bending down was difficult. So Max could pick up pencils, a paper. Oh, picking up a paper was hilarious. Max wanted to tear the paper apart. He would pounce on it and kill it. He enjoyed that and it took a while for him to get, “Oh, you want the paper in one piece? Shoot!”” But we got through that. The other behavior was for Max to pick something up, hold it, and deliver it to the nearest trash can. We started with “drop it,” then moved to where to drop it. This went well with most items, except for the Styrofoam cups. Do you know how much fun it is to hear that crunching sound when you tear a Styrofoam cup apart? Max finally got the concepts. He now delivered things whole to its designated place, according to the cues. He never lost his enjoyment of retrieving. Of course, for all his behaviors, he performed with gusto. Max just plain enjoyed life.

Max was taught not to take food from strangers. One day, long after Max graduated, Amy was in a Mexican restaurant. A man across from Jeevan and Amy’s table reached down with a tortilla chip, placed it between his paws. Aside from the stupidity of doing that, Max turned his head and ignored the chip.

Often, Amy needs the use of a wheelchair. We incorporated her wheelchair in a session of training at the Mall. We wanted to teach Max, “aside,” as well as, “front.” The reason we needed “front” was that going down a ramp, she needs to go backwards. I know, I thought that odd also. That just shows how much we understand the needs of a person handicapped. We couldn’t have Max back-up for that distance as that would have been dangerous for both. I held Max’s leash, Amy called him, he came to her frontally, and she began to back down the ramp with Max following. We showed this to Max one time without a cue, but marking the behavior. He caught on so quickly that we gave him the cue “front,” and after that session Max had it down fluently. Perhaps this was so well learned because we had also worked with a motorize cart at a grocery store. There were times Max absolutely amazed me. Max also had to understand what it meant to gage his distance from Amy’s feet, and her wheelchair. This did take a little work because Max wanted to stay close enough to touch Amy. He would get his paw stepped on or rolled over. He caught on to keeping himself close, but safe.

This brings up a very good point. Some dogs are so smart and catch on so quickly, a good trainer knows he/she must stay ahead of the dog. Example, when I trained Max to target door bars and openers. I started out with a target on my hand so he would touch the target with his paw. Suddenly Max understood what I was moving toward and opened the door. On a scale of 1 to 5, Max went from a 2 to 5. I would have been a poor trainer had I taken Max back to a 3 because he jumped ahead of me. My training plan has to be such that I understand that possibility and I must be ready to jump ahead of his understanding. If I don’t factor that in, Max will get bored while I’m trying to redraw my plan. A dog may surprise me, but he cannot get ahead of me. Max had a habit of doing keeping me on my toes.

When Max’s session was over, Amy and I would bet something to drink and decompress and let Max come down also. Max would lay and sleep. He was always worn out. When Amy would put him in the car he would kiss me, lay down and sleep all the way home. He was tired but fulfilled.

An important thing we needed for Amy was the possibility of her falling. I wanted to teach Max “bark” and “quiet.” He had fun with this exercise. But, if Amy fell, she needed to be able to cue Max to bark to summon help. Also, for Amy’s personal safety, I want her to be able to cue Max to bark if she was uncomfortable with an approaching person. Max was not aggressive, and I would never train a dog to be aggressive. But the approaching person does not know that and that is a good deterrent.
Another thing I had to teach, this time to Amy, was the ADA laws. Merchants, Mall security people, even Law Enforcement officers are not always informed of the laws pertaining to Service Dogs. Because I have a Service Dog, I know the problems the handicapped can have. Amy, Max and I met at Panera’s. Amy had not yet arrived. I went to a lady who was with a friend and introduced myself. I explained to her what I was doing. I asked her if, when my client got settled with her dog, to come over and ask her to remove Max because she had allergies. So I had that set up. Amy was settled and the lady came over, “Mam,” she said, “Would you please remove your dog? I have awful allergies.” Amy’s face went blank. She looked at the lady, looked at me, looked at Max, and was lost. I shook the ladies hand, said, “Thank you,” and she left. Amy told me, “That was mean.” That was the best thing I could have done. The experience was a good teacher. The handicapped endure so much unnecessarily. The fact is, a business or person can ask a person with a dog, two questions.
1. Sir./Mam, is the a Service Dog?”
2. What service is your dog trained to perform?
They cannot inquire about a handicap or if the person has the handicap. If a person has allergies, that is not cause to remove the dog. They cannot ask for the dog to be seated away from the public. Amy and her husband had the experience of a restaurant manager asking them to take a table away from the customers. Amy politely said, “No. We want that table there.” Remember, Amy is not one to be intimidated.

The other challenge a person with a Service Dog encounters. People think the dog is adorable and just cannot exist without that person’s petting. A person may be polite enough to ask if they can pet the dog. We say, “No, he is a working dog. Thank you.” Of course it is on the dog’s jacket, “WORKING DOG. DO NOT PET.” Since Amy travels to France, she has this in English and French. Some people cannot read and they just have to ask. We want to be polite and educate people. However, some people will not take “no” for an answer. Some will approach and reach out, determined to pet. I taught Amy she must use her body and step between the dog and the person, and kindly but firmly, say, “Please do not touch my dog.” The person may take offence, but it is her being offensive rather than me offending.

Amy was getting ready to take a flight. I am friends with the Chief of Security and the Indianapolis International Airport. He was kind enough to assign an officer to us for a visit. The officer was very kind and allowed us to go where the public could not. We was able to take Max through the TSA in a mock experience. The agent allowed Max to stay with Amy. Max observed the agent placing hands on Amy. The agent searched Max, and placed his hand under Max’s back pack. Max was a little anxious, but handled this experience well. Amy reported how perfect Max was in all of these airport situations after the Indianapolis session. This session was very important in Max’s training because Amy and Jeevan have flown several times since. Max has never had one problem.

A few days after the airport session Amy flew to another city for major surgery on her shoulder. Max was with her before as well as after the surgery, but not during. Amy was laid up for 6 or 8 weeks. I kept close to Amy and Max during this convalescing period. Amy reported that Max, after about a month, was getting rusty. I asked where Max was being fed to which she said he eats in the kitchen. I told Amy I wanted his food and water beside the bed, and only treats came from her. She could ask small things from Max to keep a sense of working. This brought Max right back to his serving Amy in just a couple of days. Max has not been lax since then.

Max’s 11 months of training was done with a clicker and operant conditioning. In all of those months there was not one act of punishment, coercion, or manipulation. He was never scolded. If he was not doing what was being asked, we understood the problem was US, not him. We had to adjust how we were approaching the training. There were times Max taught us how best he would respond to a request. Max was never wrong and we had to listen to him. When we came to a session Max was always excited and anxious to learn. Max came to trust every request. He may have been a little unsure once in a while, but he never resisted learning one behavior.

One last point. Max fell in love with me. His trainer. I always say, “If your dog isn’t this way with your trainer, get rid of the trainer.” But there can be a downside to that if the trainer is not aware. There was a point where I realized Max was bonding to me and I to him. In this kind of extensive and intensive training there will be some unavoidable bonding. But I realized Max was looking to me more than to Amy. I had to change my relationship with Max. This was not easy on me or on Max, but it had to be done. For two months I was strictly, trainer. Max was always “over the moon” to see me. It took 5 minutes to calm him and get into a session. I was as bad about this as Max. What I did was this. When Max and Amy came in to wherever we were that day, I would not even look at Max until he was calm. If I approached him and he got up from a sit or down, I turned and walked away. He would cock his head in wonderment. It just about killed me. I wanted to go hug him and apologize. When I finally greeted him I was very detached. When he did what was wanted, I had Amy praise him. I did not. This worked very well. Max loved me, but he was definitely bonded with Amy. This taught Max a lesson, “You like other people, but Amy is master and focus.”

Now Max can love on me all he wants, because I know he knows my place. One day I made a visit to IU. I saw Amy and Max, but Max had not yet seen me. As I got closer Max gave me a glance. It was hilarious because when he glanced at me like I was just another person, he turned his head back to Amy, and just as quick, he jerked his head back to me. Max is the only dog I have seen take an actual double take. He could not compute me being there in his territory. Several times, he would look to Amy and turn back to me. Then, when he could believe what he was seeing, Max was excited from nose to tail tip. We loved on each other and when we calmed down, his attention went back to Amy and he served her needs. That is what I wanted. That is what we worked on together.

Max graduated, certificate and all. Now he is on the job every day for Amy. The most significant thing Amy said to me in all this time together was, “Now (with Max) I feel like a normal person. When Amy said this, my eyes filled with tears. That is why I train Service Dogs and Companion Dogs. This is the real payoff.

I must say something about the dog being trained. I have discussed this many times with my professor and mentor, Julie Shaw. In some ways what we do in training a Serviced Dog, however necessary and needed, is unfair. What we do is condition the fun out of the dog. We are asking the dog to ignore being a dog, ignore other dogs when in public, to ignore the squirrels, not to chase the ball that rolls by, not to approach people, to lay under a table for an hour while we eat, and ignore children. This was extremely hard for Max, because Max loved children. It took a long time to get him to ignore children that were close by. I’m not saying this is harmful to the dog. The Service Dog does not miss what it does not do. We still condition the fun out of the dog.

Our Service Dog, Nekayah, is a prime example of this. Our Dexter, a Great Pyrenees, will go outside, especially if there is snow, and lay for long periods of time. If another dog is here, Dexter will go out and play, run and romp. Not Nekayah. Nekayah is a Hearing Impaired Service Dog. She alerts my wife to many things in the house and outside. She even alerts when someone is behind her in a store. There are 7 or 8 buzzers, dings, and rings to which she alerts. Nekayah is on the job all day and night. If she hears the smoke detector she will wake us up. In her head she is never off duty. We can tell her to go play. Sometimes we tell her, “Go get the rabbit.” She’ll run out the doggy door, run the perimeter of the yard, and come straight back in. She will not allow herself to be where we are not. She is relaxed in the home. She is not anxious, waiting for the next buzzer. She just chooses to be with us. Right now she is laying on a chair, on her back, head hanging over, tongue lolling out, resting. Oops. The oven buzzer just sounded. Nekayah is up, going to the next room to tell Linda, “Whatever you are baking, it done.” She did her job and now is resting on another couch.

What I am saying is this. This is not bad. These are very special dogs who give up a lot to serve one person for all of its adult life. The dog is highly educated and is able to think for itself. It was Max’s idea to start going and getting sox for Amy in the mornings. When Amy steps off the curb and tells Max, “Let’s go,” and Max stays where he is. Amy looks up and sees a car. We call this in Service Dogs, “Intelligent Disobedience.” The dog knows to move is dangerous for my master. The handler has to learn to trust the dog. I told Amy many times, “Max is never wrong. Listen to him.”
I have had this with our Service Dog many times. Every time I thought Nekayah must be wrong, she was right. Once I told Nekayah, “Find mommy.” Nekayah sniffed the air and headed forward. I just knew Linda didn’t go that way and I would direct Nekayah another way. I frustrated her terribly. I found that the direction Nekayah was going was exactly the way Linda went. Another time, Linda was leaving the Mall. She walked out, Nekayah beside her. Nekayah stopped at the curb, Linda stepped into the access drive. Nekayah immediately jump in front of Linda, and pushed her aside. Linda did not see a car coming. Nekayah saw it and placed herself between Linda and the car. We handlers can get so used to the routine that we don’t always look. Nekayah is trained to always look, to always be ready for what is not the norm, and to act accordingly. Intelligent Disobedience. Always trust the dog.

There are people who feel, when we train a Service Dog, that we are placing the dog in bondage. I have had a few who have actually said that to me. I don’t know what they would suggest to the handicapped person as an alternative. We are discovering, more and more, the capabilities of dogs. Not only dogs, but small breed ponies are now showing promise, as a guide animal for the blind.
Is it wrong to use dogs for hunting? What about agility, or sports? Is it bad to train dogs for Search and Rescue? These dogs are not mistreated or abused. They save and protect countless lives each year. I wish these people, although well intended, would demonstrate their outrage at the blood sports dogs are forced to be a part of. There is where the energy should be expended, to stop that horrific abuse.

Well, this is Max’s story. That dog with that goofy smile. That dog who didn’t know what to do with those hind legs, who was so full of life and love. That beautiful, shiny haired dog with glistening eyes, who was so fixed as if he was afraid he would miss an instruction. This dog who finds joy in serving Amy every day, and does so for no other reason than devotion, is the textbook dog for Service Dogs. There are no words to that can fully tell others about Max. He is the model of all Service Dogs, but a mold like no other. He is the perfect ambassador for Service Dogs. He is the perfect Service Dog for Amy.

In a few months I will do a follow-up with Max and Amy. We will meet at the Mall and do some evaluating, but I am sure Max will pass that evaluation with amazement.

What I hope with this article is that my readers gain an insight into what is poured into the dogs that are wearing service jackets. For many reasons, not every dog qualifies for this training. Max was one that did, and he excelled. To be able to tell Max’s story is an honor.



 As much as we love our dog/s barking can be a source of irritation for us. Many owners are embarrassed when a neighbor calls Animal Control to complain about Fido’s barking. Owners go to the door and shout, “Shut up.” Some use spray bottles or hoses to spray the dog in the face. Others roll up a newspaper and smack Fido on the butt. Some use the extreme (which I consider both unnecessary and abuse), the E-collar or Shock collar.  The only things these efforts accomplish are, 1. You instill fear in Fido. 2. Causing Fido to distrust, 3. Perhaps, instilling fear aggression in Fido, 4. Your possibly causing Fido to become reactive to newspapers. Anytime one applies punishment there are unintended consequences. There is a better way.

 I will illustrate what you can accomplish. I have a Great Pyrenees. Barking is a part of the Pyrenees DNA. He lays in the back yard and barks at everything that moves. His job is to keep the coyotes away from the sheep (us). He takes this job very seriously and I love him for it. His barking is to summon everyone, “I think you need to come and check this out.”  Now, I don’t want to stop his barking. What I want to do is let him bark on my terms. Here is how I did that.

As I explain this process, remember, I am a clicker (marker) trainer. When I click to mark the behavior I want, it is always followed by at least one treat. Having our clicker ready we also have treats in a pouch around our waist to hold the treats. You can use a bowl to place your treats in. To mark the wanted behavior I “click and treat.” I will use “C/T” to indicate this.

The first thing I needed to do was put “bark” on cue. Here is how I did that. Remember, Dexter does not know what the word “bark” means. So I need to capture that “bark” and C/T that behavior. I set up my training time. No phone calls or other distractions. I needed to focus on Dexter. When he barked, I would C/T. Dexter knows the clicker so for me he responded quickly. “Bark,” C/T. With a couple of times of this order Dexter would bark, look at me, C/T. Be sure you are clicking the bark. If your timing is off, you will click the head turn and that will confuse both Fido and you. When he barks, C, you would then treat if he turns his head. What you want to mark is the bark.

Once Dexter was barking intentionally, I changed what I was doing. Now it was time to set my training to 2 or 3 minutes. I would count out my treats, 20 or 30 treats accordingly. This way I knew Dexter’s rate of barks. When I felt comfortable that he was barking, C/T 8 to 10 times a minute it was time for me to introduce my cue, “Bark.” As Dexter would bark, I timed the word “bark” with his bark. In the next session (2 to 3 minutes) I would say “bark” with his bark, but I would then switch and say “bark” just before his bark. I would do this in a couple of sessions until I could back the word “bark” to before his “bark” and him bark in response to my cue. Now, I can say, “bark” and he barks. He doesn’t bark if I don’t say, “bark.”

I want you to understand, this is only in the training session. Outside of the training session he can still, and will, bark as he needs to bark. Be sure and not correct or punish him for this or you will poison your efforts. You have a goal here, do not get ahead of the process.

Now, you are going to ratchet things up. In your training session you will cue Fido to bark, C/T. You wait a couple of seconds (no more), if Fido barks you do not C/T. What you do is immediately cue Fido to bark. He will and you C/T. You do this for a couple of sessions until Fido understands that you want him to bark on your cue, but not when you do not cue him. This  process will not take long. He will understand.

Here is another point. When Fido barks, without your giving the cue do not say, “No,” or “uh, uh.”  We call those a “no reward marker.” Just don’t say anything. Also, if you get frustrated because things are not going the way you want, then stop. You will only make Fido frustrated and he will shut down. However, don’t just walk away leaving Fido to wonder what he did wrong. End EVERY session on a success, even if you hold your hand down, say touch, he touches your hand with his nose, C/T. At the end of EVERY session, put your hands in front of you and say, “finished,” then toss some treats on the floor. This way, you ALWAYS end on success, and with something wonderful. Fido will always anticipate you getting the clicker out for another session.

Now you have “bark” on cue. The goal of this exercise is the second part. Quiet. Again, set up your training session, 2 to 3 minutes. Have your clicker and treats ready. With Dexter, he knew we were training, so he would sit in front of me. I cued him to bark, then I waited after the bark, one thousand one, C/T. Cue him to bark, one thousand two, C/T. I keep extending the time AFTER the bark until I can count, one thousand five, C/T. When I could have Dexter bark, quiet to one thousand five 8 times a minute, it was time to introduce the cue, “quiet.”

I would cue Dexter to bark, then he would be quiet, I would count to one thousand four, say, “quiet” C/T. I wanted to move this forward until Dexter would bark, I could say, “quiet” and he would not bark again until or unless I cued him to do so. Now I want to ping pong bark and quiet. Sometimes I would want to really reinforce Dexter by giving 3 or 4 treats. Not every time, but once in a while. You do not have to limit yourself to just one treat following the click. Just be sure you are clicking one time as a mark. Also, when you cue, you give the cue ONE time. Let Fido process your cue. If he can’t do that, then you introduced the cue too early. Always end your session on a success.

You will want to train in a different room, outside, so Fido can generalize his bark/quiet behavior. When Dexter had this down I will let him bark 2 or 3 times at something, then I will say, “Good bark Dexter, now quiet.” And guess what, he quits barking and usually turns to walk with me. I had a guest in my home not long ago. We were sitting at the kitchen table, and Dexter was barking at something. It was summer and the sliding door was open, so I called out to Dexter, “quiieet,” Dexter stopped barking and my friend said, “No way.” So you can begin adding distance when you cue.

Early in Dexter’s training for bark/quiet, if he did not stop barking I would take a few steps toward him to close the distance, cue him again, and usually he responded. Never close the distance in a threatening way. If you are frustrated just go calmly and quietly, take Fido’s collar and walk him away from his interest. He will usually stop barking as you walk away. Now tell him, “Good quiet” and reward him.

I also want you to understand in teaching Fido quiet, you are not C/Ting him for not barking. You are C/Ting his quiet. We are teaching Fido two distinctive behaviors, bark and quiet. I do not C/T Fido for not doing something. So it is not that Fido is not barking, but that he is being quiet. This distinction is important for your thinking and avoiding Fido becoming frustrated and confused.

One last thing. When you are cuing Fido, do so in a calm, controlled voice. Louder is not better. Fido is not deaf (although you will at times think he is). Do not repeat the cue. “Fido, quiet—quiet—quiet.” Or, “Fido, quiet—-QUIet—QUIET!” If Fido is not responding there are three reasons, 1. You introduced the cue too early, 2. The value of your reinforcement is not high enough, 3. The rate of reinforcement is not often enough. You may need to go back to establishing the behavior with no words, just Behavior, C/T.

Fido is not being “stubborn.” Dogs do not know “stubborn.” They know when they are confused. They know when they are conflicted. When Fido is confused or conflicted, that is my not being clear.

You goal, in this exercise, is to teach Fido quiet. To do that we put its counterpart “bark” on cue so we can then put “quiet” on cue.

Here is just one valuable time this can be used. A lady is taking her dog for a walk. There is a man approaching and you have feelings of being uncomfortable. You can cue Fido to bark. This will usually deter someone with whom you are not comfortable. You now have a safety feature in walking Fido.

Have fun training because you are strengthening your relationship with Fido in the process.



. What do each of these dogs have in common? FUN! Look at the resourcefulness of these pets. Take in that wonderful smile. Is that not face to die for? What do you think the owner of each of these dogs have in common? FRUSTRATION!

Let’s talk about


When I was in college (I mention that, otherwise no one could guess) I had a wonderful German Shepherd named, Little Boy. He was anything but little, but he was everything wonderful. Our house on campus was so small that we had to keep him outside, which just killed me. The problem was not with me, but with my wife. I guess she had good reason. One day we were having a very special dinner, roast. Understand, meat for us was a rarity. With three children and no money, meat was just unaffordable. We ate a lot of mac/cheese, eggs/beans, soups, but more seldom than seldom, meat. We were like Pavlov’s dog with that roast on the table. Remember the Christmas Story? The turkey on the table? The dogs? Yep, that is what happened. I had let Little Boy out of his fenced area. Linda was in the kitchen rustling around, I was in another room (we didn’t have that many). I heard a yell and “#*&@ Littler Boy.” I ran from the other room (our rooms were not very large), and all I saw was a butt and tail exiting the back door. The meat was gone, Linda was upset, and Little Boy was banished, exiled to his fence, and we had potatoes and carrots for dinner.

If you are laughing about this, it is not because this is funny (it is now) but yours is a sympathetic laugh. Nearly all who read this has had a similar event. Some of you have called me, pulling your hair and mumbling things unrepeatable. And your poor dog! In these situations I have to calm the owner and rescue the dog. When the owner is telling me the kitchen misbehaviors of Fido, I quietly laugh. The descriptions are like the Marmaduke cartoons. I sometimes jest with the owner and say, “That is so much like a dog.”

My daughter’s dogs are the King and Prince of Counter Surfing. Cooper is a Flat Coated Retriever and Oliver is a Black Lab. Sandwiches, pizza, hamburgers, steak, crackers, bread, hot dogs, a chocolate cake (whole cake), all gone. These dogs are no respecters of food. Cooper had extensive training as he went through my behaviorism program with me. Attaching a rope on the door handle,  I taught Cooper to open the refrigerator. Linda was baking bread. We have a towel on the oven door handle. Thinking nothing about it we went about working in the house. When we came to the kitchen the bread pan was on the floor and half of the loaf of bread was gone. That ornery Cooper, seeing a towel on the oven handle, opened the door and found a warm treasure that met the delight of his palate. Now don’t tell me dogs do not generalize. I rescued Cooper to a car ride so Linda could calm down.

Let me brag about my dogs. Nekayah is a Louisiana Catahoula Leopard, and Dexter is a Great Pyrenees. Both have had service dog training and Nekayah serves us as a Service Dog. They have had extensive training. We can leave a plate of grilled hamburgers on the table, grilled steaks on the counter, or food on the patio table. Neither of our dogs will touch. They may take a few whiffs,

But I have never had either of them “steal” anything with one of us there or none of us there. This is because Nekayah, Dexter and I had a very specific conversation and they cooperated with me in proper training to overcome these temptations. When Cooper is here Nekayah and Dexter go to another room. They’re not about to let Cooper get them in trouble. He is on his own.

Besides “#@$&!$#” what can one do to stop this aggravating behavior from one’s pet? Or, is there anything that works? There are so many powerful odors. If we are preparing stew, we smell stew. Fido layers the odors. He smells meat, potatoes, and carrots. So the first thing we need to realize is that these are powerful temptations for Fido. Understanding this will help us to keep our expectations reasonable. When you cook, do you not take a taste? Don’t expect more from your dog than you can expect of yourself.

Here are a couple of things you can avoid in the kitchen with your dog.

  1. Do not yell, scold, or punish Fido. He is acting naturally and believes your cooking and baking are as good as you hope others will think. Some will have a water spray bottle handy to spray Fido in the face if he comes close to the counters.
  2. Do not hit Fido. Don’t slap his nose. You do not want Fido to fear you.
  3. Do not push Fido away or down. This reinforces his behavior and turns into a game.Jumping up on the counter is self-reinforcing and you do not want to make it “really” fun.
  4. Do not get an air horn, marble can, or a shock collar. Do not purchase shock pads, tack strips, or double sided duct tape.
  5. One source advised you come up with different “booby-traps.” This same source suggested “aversion therapy” for Fido. Now, I was a therapist in a past career. I can only imagine what “aversive therapy is and it doesn’t sound therapeutic.

It is in Fido’s genes to scavenge. Also, if Fido has found food there before then he will check it out again. That being true then we are complicit in his behavior. On our side, counter surfing can be dangerous. Fido may get scalded. He may break a plate and get glass shards in his paw. He may get a pill or other objects that can be lethal.

Okay, that’s enough of the don’ts. Let’s talk about resolutions to the unwanted behavior of counter surfing. Are you ready for this? The onus is on you. If you do not want Fido jumping up on the counter, you have to help him. You cannot expect Fido to just “know.”  The first step you must take is to remove the temptation. No, I don’t mean you need to tear the counters out. I mean you must manage the temptation. Keep the counters clean. Move things to the back of the counter. Place a cake in the oven or microwave, or refrigerator. Have a bread box. Keep the lower cupboards closed. Keep the lid on the trash can. Take the chicken bones OUT to the trash can outside. The bones smell good, but can splinter, so why temp by having the throwaway in the house trash? The point is, good management helps to set Fido up for success. Booby traps help set Fido up for failure.

The real place to start with Fido is when he is a puppy. The moment we take ownership of Fido, his training begins. The real problem with counter surfing is Fido’s jumping. We who own pets must teach Fido what we do not want very early, by teaching him what we do want, what is allowed. Because he is so cute owners allow the little guy to get away with behaviors as a puppy, thinking he will grow out of them. He won’t. By doing this the owner is doing a bait and switch which leaves Fido very confused which causes other unnecessary issues. My personal opinion is that every puppy should be crate trained. The crate should be the best and the safest place in the house. Fido can be taught to go to his crate on cue, or to go to his crate when you are working in the kitchen.

If you dog is adolescent or older and you are just wanting to stop this unwanted behavior, you can. Some are afraid because their dog has been allowed to counter surf Fido is too old or the behavior is too ingrained to be changed. That is not true. Age does not matter. How long it has gone on does not matter. Unless a dog is mentally or physically impaired, with Clicker or Marker training, Fido can be taught any new behavior. If you do not understand Clicker Training, please find my article titled, WHEN? WHY? – CLICKER TRAINING. You will find this article under the Education or Training tabs. Reading that article will help you understand all of my philosophy and methods of training.

So MANAGEMENT is the first step in curbing counter surfing. Training is step two. You may ask, “What do I train?” I’m glad you asked.

You can train, “FOUR ON THE FLOOR.” This is primarily a jumping issue. Now, if you have a Great Dane then the issue is his height and “Four on the Floor” is not the only alternative. Four on the Floor is easy to capture. Any time Fido puts his paws on a chair, jumps up on you, have your clicker. When he drops his paws on the floor, click and treat Fido. Act like you are working on the counter tops, or you may have work that needs done. Fido will show interest and may put his paws on the counter. Totally ignore that behavior. Have your clicker ready and when Fido puts his paws on the floor (watch him closely) when his paws touch the floor, click and treat Fido. Timing is important. Click when Fido’s paws touch the floor. If you are late with the click and Fido turns his head, he may think that is what you are marking. You can give Fido one treat, or you can give him two or three. Fido will think, “Wow, when my paws are on the floor it is better than being on the counter.” Ignore the behavior you do not want, reinforce the behavior you do want.


This is a great alternative. You can use Fido’s crate, or you can lace a pad on the floor. With your clicker and treats ready capture Fido’s going to the mat. You will not use words until you get the behavior, but when you do, you can use “place” or “mat.” The way you begin is to stand near the mat and when Fido even looks at it, you click and treat. This is all by successive approximation. Any interaction with the mat elicits a click and treat. Remember, one click and treat 1, 2, or 3 treats. Some people have misunderstood the clicker and click a couple of times. It is just one click, then treat.

When Fido is going to the mat reliably, then you can begin introducing the cue. Let’s use “place.” As Fido steps on the mat say, “Place,” click and treat. Keep backing your cue up so when Fido is a few feet away, you say, “Place,” Fido goes to the mat, click and treat. To help you reset Fido, you can toss the treat a few feet away from the mat, and then you can re-cue him. You can teach him to lay on the mat and then, when you ask him to “go to your place,” Fido will go to the mat and lay down. Now you can begin adding duration and distractions.

You can use a mat because it is easier to move around. You can have it near or in the kitchen so Fido can watch what you are doing. You can have a Gong toy filled with good things, and let him enjoy that. This tends to be a little more mobile than a crate.

Some people do not want Fido in the kitchen at all. That is easy. Teach Fido where he can be. You can teach him to not go closer than the tack strip in the door way, or the carpet edge. He will put his paws just over the edge, but this is also a great alternative. You can teach Fido to stay until released.

Here is where you succeed or fail. CONSISTENCY, CONSISTENCY! Every person in the home, including children, must be on the same page. If it appears Fido is just not getting it, I will guarantee it is because he is getting conflicting messages. Inconsistency is the sure way to set Fido up for failure. Guess who will be blamed? That’s correct. Fido. So involve everyone in the training. You will have to instruct visitors. If a family member comes to visit and wants to drop a piece of cheese for Fido, tell her “No.” CONSISTENCY, CONSISTENCY!

Fido may have a relapse every now and then. Do not scold, just get the clicker out and do a refresher course. In time it will be natural for Fido to go to his place when you begin messing in the kitchen. You will turn to cue him to his “place,” to discover he is already there. You may want him near you and just sit near you while you work in the kitchen. Either way you have him with “Four on the Floor,” or lying in his “place.” The counter surfing problem is resolved. You are happier, Fido is happier, and it was achieved without yelling, or “#*&%@%.” The watershed to this is that you now have a deeper relationship with Fido. He knows you are pleased and you know he is happy.

WOW! What a great outcome




 Several years past I attended a basic training course for my dog. Actually it was I who needed training but that is for another articles. In the class the leader brought out this little plastic box that made the sound of a cricket. She told us it was a CLICKER, and that with this we would train our dog. I was skeptical. I mean, after all, how manly is that thing? I wanted to stand tall and erect, chest out, and with a baritone voice give commands and everyone is wowed by my control of my dog. I was not impressed with the use of this tool.

 The problem was, this thing called a CLICKER was not well explained. The science of CLICKER training was never referred to. I thought this to be another silly fad. Without proper introduction and demonstration one cannot understand the proper use and the effectiveness of the CLICK to which the animal, for this article, the dog, in just a few minutes, comes to love. When I take the CLICKER out of a drawer or my pocket my dogs come, sit, and wait with anticipation of what is to come. If all I’m doing is moving the CLICKER the disappointment is evident on their faces, “Aaww,” and they go someplace and lie down. I want to explain that CLICKER training is not a fad, but is solidly couched in science, and its effectiveness seen in results.

 “CLICKER TRAINING” can be a confusing term. Not all trainers who use a CLICKER are “CLICKER TRAINERS.” Not all trainers who use a CLICKER are positive trainers. Not all “positive trainers” are always “positive.” A bona fide CLICKER TRAININER is a Force-Free Trainer. A trainer that does not manipulate, coerce, or force the dog to do something. One who believes punishment is not needed because punishment, 1. Shuts the dog down, 2. Destroys the trust of the dog in the trainer. There are other watershed problems with using punishment in training an animal, but I will not go into those. Just think about a teacher who punishes the children and your child doesn’t want to go to school anymore, perhaps gets sick before the bus arrives, and you will be able to fill in the sentences I am leaving out.

 Personally, I prefer using the term “Marker Training.” We also refer to the CLICKER as an Event Marker. The event is the wanted behavior offered by the dog, the CLICK marks the event of that behavior being offered. “Marker Training” explains what I do when I use a CLICKER in my training. Marker Training and CLICKER TRAINING can also be confusing for this reason, not all CLICKER TRAINERS do not always use that little box that clicks. We “Marker Trainers,” to mark a desired behavior may use the CLICKER, we may use a tongue click, we may use a retractable pen for a softer click, we may use a whistle, and we may use a word, or we may use all of these depending on what is working best. Important to remember is that CLICKER TRAINING or Marker Training is a psychology, a technology, and a philosophy of training.

 It would be helpful to have a working knowledge of both classical conditioning and operant conditioning. The reason this would be helpful is so one, in selecting a trainer, will have an understanding of a trainer’s terminology. Traditional trainers often use the language of a Marker trainer, but not the practice. CLICKER TRAINERS not only use the terminology, but we apply the principles of operant conditioning in all we do. It is more than a “method,” it is a way, It is not what we use, but who we are.

 When I “mark” a behavior, usually with a CLICKER, I am marking a behavior in time. For the dog it is like a snapshot of the behavior he (I don’t like the word “it,” so I will use “he” generically), performed. The CLICK is a green light, it is a loud, “yes” that the dog understands. Following the CLICK his behavior is reinforced, which “pays” him for the behavior. Now the behavior is most likely to be repeated.

 The CLICK is always followed by a reinforcement. The dog must pair the CLICK with a reward. The reward is usually food, but not necessarily. Sometimes it is a toy, a moment of play, it could be praise. But always CLICK, reinforcement. To pair the CLICK with the reward is to have your dog in front of you and you CLICK and treat ten times a couple times a day for two or three days. The evidence your dog is getting it is when you CLICK and he jerks his head. He may run to you so have a treat ready for him. Now you are ready to use the CLICKER for training.

 Here are three term terms remember. First, the CLICKER is a “secondary reinforcer.” When the dog hears the CLICK, that in itself is a reinforcer, but something must follow that. Second, this is where the treat or reward comes in. The treat is a “primary reinforcer.” It is the “wage” for the work just performed by the dog. Three, a bridge. The CLICK serves as a bridge in that you have a few seconds to give the reward. Because the reward in now solidly paired with the CLICK the time for delivery is not thought of, by the dog, a delay. He is not going to lose his connection between the CLICK and his behavior. This is better understood when you think of the trainer of dolphins. The trainer blows a whistle to mark the behavior the dolphin just correctly performed, but it takes the dolphin a couple of seconds for him to swim to the trainer to get his fish as a reinforcer.

 I won’t go into how the CLICK, as a secondary reinforcer, goes through is processed through the amygdala to the cortex and locks in the behavior as it is reinforced. When the dog has that down, he never forgets it. When that behavior is under stimulus control you can put the CLICKER and treats in the drawer until you are going to train another behavior. My point is that the CLICK is not just a meaningless noise paired with a reward. The process is psychologically sound and the results predictable. This is why I love what I do because the dog enjoys the training, I enjoy training, and as partners we succeed together. It is a new day when the dog realizes we are communicating in a meaningful way, and that he is the one making that thing CLICK.

 So here are the steps:

  1. We capture the dog sitting,
  2. CLICK the behavior (the sit),
  3. Deliver a reward/treat to the dog,
  4. Perhaps toss the treat two feet away,
  5. When the dog returns, he should sit again,
  6. If he doesn’t, wait until he does, he will figure it out,
  7. CLICK when he sits,
  8. Repeat the steps.

 Notice, I am not using a word yet. I am not saying “sit.” I want to get the behavior first and as the dog understands what we are doing. When the dog is returning and sitting, on his own, eight to ten times in a minute, then it is time to introduce the word (cue), “sit.” The key is, as the dog is sitting and committed to the sit, say the cue, “sit,” then when his butt touches the floor, CLICK and reward. Again you can toss the treat a couple of feet away which will reset him. He returns, begins his sit, give cue “sit,” CLICK, reward.

 You see, in Marker training we want to get the behavior, then use a word to pair with the behavior. We are cooperating together. No force, no coercion, no punishment. In traditional training the trainer tell the dog “sit,” which the dog has no clue what is being asked or told. Then the trainer jerks up on a choke chain or prong collar, pushes down on the dog’s butt, forcing it to “sit.” So the dog is punished twice. 1. The choke chain is jerked up (remember, a choke chain does what it is called), 2. The dog’s but is pushed down. The dog stiffens his hind legs in reflex, but is forced to sit. Actually there is another, 3. The trainer says, “siiutt” in a deep, gruff voice, which is threatening to the dog. The dog is punished for what he doesn’t know or understand. He now hates training sessions because, for him, they are punishment sessions. At some point a person, perhaps a child, will place a hand on the dog’s hips, and the dog may turn and snap at or bite. Then guess what? The dog is labeled aggressive, is rehomed or worse yet, euthanized.

 The trainer should not be doing all the work. This is not magic, it is not secret, like a recipe. As a trainer want to teach you, the owner, what I do, then you don’t need me to continue training behaviors and/or tricks. Training should be fun for you and the dog. If it isn’t fun, if you and/or your dog do not enjoy what is going on, STOP IT! If you are frustrated, DON’T START! If you are angry with someone, DON’T TRAIN! Your dog knows your mood and will act accordingly.

 The training of a behavior culminates, hopefully, in “Stimulus Control.” Stimulus Control. Using the “sit” example, “sit” is the cue that prompts the behavior. When I say or sign “sit” I don’t want the dog to lie down, or spin, or spin then sit. When I want to test the clarity and effectiveness of the cue I have chosen, here is what I look for.

  1. When I give the verbal or visual cue, the stimulus, (sit) the dog sits.
  2. (In a training session) The dog does not sit in the absence of being cued to do so.
  3. The dog does not sit if I give another cue like, spin or stand.
  4. The dog does not lie down or spin when I give the cue to sit.

 This does not mean the dog cannot sit at will during the day. I am talking about being in a training session or a competition. This is how you establish the dogs understand of the word or the signal given to elicit that particular behavior.

 This is all accomplished with that little box that clicks. With the CLICKER we capture the behavior, we then add a word or a signal to pair with that behavior, then refine the dogs understanding of that word or signal, and generalize that cued behavior in other environments.

 Remember, when a behavior is established, you can put the CLICKER and treats away until you want to teach another behavior. You will still reward and reinforce behaviors when your dog responds to a cue. You do this periodically because you love your dog and show appreciation for doing what you ask. If a behavior weakens it may mean you are not clear or you have allowed something else to be attached to your cue. You may get the CLICKER and treats out to reestablish that particular cue. If you punish the dog for not offering the behavior right away when cued, then you may poison the cue and need to change the cue for that behavior.

 For trainers who may read this, I am aware I did not get into the dynamics of classical or operant conditioning. I did not get into the six aspects of Fluency as related to Stimulus Control. I did not explain that a person can have two cues for one behavior, but cannot have two behaviors expected with one cue. My interest here is the science and practice of Marker training, also referred to as CLICKER TRAINING. If one feels I left something out, did not emphasize something strongly enough, did not address the objections to, or misunderstandings of, or did not draw comparisons between Force-Free and Traditional training, I understand. My intent was not to write a comparative study of CLICKER TRAINING. It is intended to be an expose’ of CLICKER TRAINING proper.

 If one has an understanding of my psychology, philosophy, and method of training an animal one can understand better other articles I write. This Force-Free approach is not an option for me, it is me. It is not up for debate. The proofs are in the results. I train in home pets, I train Service Dogs, and I work to modify very aggressive dogs. My methods are the same. I cannot, will not train aggression in a dog. There is no place for choke chains, prong collars, or shock collars in working with an animal. I collect these control and tortuous products from owners who were told, These work.”

 The dogs we CLICKER TRAINERS work with, love us. I tell clients, “If your dog does not act this way with a trainer, get rid of the trainer” We laugh together at that, but I also am serious. Only trust your pet with someone who will treat him with respect, dignity, and kindness.